We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans,
we shall fight with growing confidence and strength in the air, we shall defend our island whatever the cost may be. We shall
fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight
in the hills; we shall never surrender. Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, PC, FRS
Not found what your looking for ? use
the search box!
In 1945, World War II ended. By 1946, American servicemen began returning home to
start up the families they had had to put on hold for 4 years. Thus began the unusually large bubble in the population curve
of America known as the Baby Boom, as gazillions of babies were born all of a sudden in the span of five to ten years. Remember
that all those babies born in 1946-1947 would be 18 in 1964-1965 (and eventually 22 and out of college, and into the marketplace
in the early '70's, to kick off the Me Decade). What that means is that American society would suddenly find itself
catering to a generation of young people in a way that had never occurred before. Sixties rock finds its roots in several
places, starting as far back as the big swing bands of the pre-war era that the 60's kids' parents listened to as
youngsters: Glenn Miller, Benny Goodman, Count Basie, Tommy and Jimmy Dorsey, and Duke Ellington's bands are some of the
most famous. Except for Duke Ellington, all those bands were primarily dance bands, with big swinging backbeats. You can still
hear some of their greatest hits today in such unusual places as the Chips Ahoy commercial (1,000 chips in every bag). There
were also the smaller, “rhythm combo” groups, usually of only four or five players. Their tunes were popular on
the jukeboxes of the day, but were not considered artistically important which is why we have mostly forgotten them today.
The recent Broadway show “Five Guys Named Moe,” which highlights the career of Louis Jordan, tells about one of
the most popular rhythm combos of the day. Nat King Cole also had a small jazz combo that had popular success, before he became
a Sinatra-style pop ballad singer in the '50's. Then there was Country & Western--especially what was called “Texas
Swing,” of which Bob Wills & the Texas Playboys was the king. Hank Williams Sr. was another important singer/songwriter
of that era and genre. Over in Memphis there was Sam Phillips and his Sun Studios, where rockabilly and Elvis Presley were
born. Besides Presley, Jerry Lee Lewis, Carl Perkins, Johnny Cash and Roy Orbison all began their recording careers at Sun
Studios. Two other sources of modern rock'n'roll, absolutely essential to the sound we think of as 60's rock,
were, first, the Blues. Blues began as the music of black sharecroppers in the poor cotton-farming region of the Mississippi
Delta, and traveled north to Chicago with the sharecroppers as thousands of them moved north in search of a better life. It
was in Chicago that the blues went from acoustic solo guitar music to electric guitar-electric bass-drums combos. Muddy Waters,
Little Milton, B.B. King, and Howlin' Wolf were just a few of these important Chicago blues artists. The last source of
modern rock'n'roll is actually a single man. Les Paul was a studio whiz and guitar player who designed the Gibson
Les Paul electric guitar, and pioneered the technique of overdubbing, allowing one person to play more than one part on a
recording. Working with his wife Mary Ford, who sang the vocal parts, Les Paul created a series of two-person recordings that
sounded like an entire band was playing--and the music was all guitar-based. Copyright 1998 Jack Madani.
The Glenn Miller Orchestra UK was formed in 1988 in conjunction with Glenn Miller Productions
On December 7, 1941, the Japanese launched an assault
on Pearl Harbor. To most Hawaiians, December 7, 1941 was a peaceful Sunday. At 8:00 A.M., People were awake, laid back and
were enjoying their day on the island. Unbeknown to many Hawaiians, when they heard guns going off and huge explosions were
sounding from Pearl Harbor that they were under attack. A man named Ronald Oba was a writer at Times Magazine and wrote an
article about his experiences that fateful day. He said that he was enjoying the sunny morning and as the eldest son of his
family of Japanese immigrant, he was awarded pancakes. He thought that when he heard gun noises and shells going off, he thought
that it was just the standard military exercise that day. He saw the Battleship Arizona, Battleship West Virginia and Battleship
California go up in flames. As a Zero hugged the ground flying pass him, he saw the pilot looking down at him and saw the
Japanese “Rising Sun” logo. Many people on Hawaii no longer trusted the Japanese-Americans on the island. The
village elders decided to burn anything that linked back with their ancestral homeland. These included swords, photos of the
Emperor, flags, and even shortwave radios (which could've been turned into transmitters). However, the FBI still went
into the Japanese-American homes and rounded up all the language teachers, martial arts instructors and other businessmen
to concentration camps. Sometimes, they were held at gunpoint while rounding them up. Even Japanese- American soldiers serving
in the US military were force to leave service and their rifles taken away from them.
When Myanah Saunders was a child in
the late 1940s, Britain was in the grip of post-war shortages and rationing was still in force. Although her family was
not hard-up, Christmas presents were limited by what was available. "There was always a tangerine in the toe of the
stocking and a bag of nuts, which were both quite special to us. We didn't have any sweets or chocolate because they
were rationed, although there were usually sugar mice. On top of that, there would be a couple of things to keep us quiet:
wax crayons, a small colouring book and a small toy or puzzle." Among the items Ms Saunders, now 62, remembers receiving were clockwork toys, friction-driven cars,
slide puzzles, party whistles and celluloid dolls. "It was quite predictable what we would get, but it was still exciting
because it was traditional and we knew what to look forward to."
Join our old buddy "Kilroy" in peeking over
the wall at our collection of World War II pinup queens. The most famous of all? Check out Betty Grable, our selection for
January 1999, when this feature made its debut (we've since added pinups for earlier months!). War movie buffs will remember
actor Robert Strauss (playing "Animal") in Stalag 17, professing undying love for a tattered picture of Betty. Or
the scene in Patton when "Ole Blood 'n Guts" (played by George C. Scott) tears a pinup off a wall with
his riding crop during an inspection. Whether tacked on a barracks wall in some dreary camp in Britain, folded into a tiny
square inside a wallet that crossed European and Pacific battlefields, or merely secreted away as a prized possession in a
POW camp, pinups afforded the GI a glimpse of American (and, yes, English) beauty, however remote, wherever they were. Even
the German at the radar site in Saving Private Ryan, in his litany of Americanisms, utters "Betty Grable ... great gams."
(For more about WW II pinup art, read our overview.) Many of these vintage views of the most beautiful women of the 1940s
are from the webmaster's pesonal collection; others are from other sources and will be so-credited. And, if a girl of
the month wasn't enough, visit any of these special sections for more!
In 1943, authorities at a German POW camp in Poland
discovered that three prisoners were missing. A considerable space separated the prisoners’ huts from the perimeter
fence, so at first it wasn’t clear how they’d escaped. But the three inmates had something in common — all
three had exercised during the day on a vaulting horse in the yard. On investigating, the Germans discovered a 100-foot tunnel
leading from that spot to an opening beyond the fence. The truth became clear. Each day, the prisoners had carried the horse
to the same spot with a man hidden inside. While they exercised, the hidden man had used a bowl to lengthen the tunnel, then
hid again in the horse as it was carried back inside. The Germans had used siesmographs to detect tunneling, but the prisoners’
vaulting had masked the sounds of their digging. All three escapees — Eric Williams, Michael Codner, and Oliver Philpot
— reached neutral Sweden and were reunited with their families.
was one person who led or participated in every combat, training or occupation operation during WWII and the Korean War. This
person could always be depended on. GI's began to consider him the "super GI." He was one who always got there
first or who was always there when they left. I am, of course, referring to Kilroy Was Here. Somehow, this simple graffiti
captured the imagination of GI's everywhere they went. The scribbled cartoon face and words showed up everywhere - worldwide.
Stories (some even true) abound.
Children in 1940s had the same subjects as we have now
(reading, spelling, math, geography), but the classrooms looked different. Each student sat separately, and the desks and
chairs were fastened to the floor in straight rows. The teachers were more strict and the classrooms more orderly. At recess
time children would march out of the classrooms in organized lines. Most of the time boys and girls played on separate playgrounds.
Children would get to school by riding a bicycle or walking. Sometimes, children lived so close to the school that they could
go home for lunch and return to school.
Children in 1944 were living during a rough time. The Second World War
was going on in Europe, China and the Pacific Islands. At school, kids would learn about the war and about the places where
the American soldiers were fighting. Children tried to help as much as they could by recycling old rubber tires and metal
junk to make new weapons, as shown in the poster above. They also rolled bandages from strips of cloth, knitted blankets and
warm sweaters and collected and sent packages of food to the American troops.
Kids at that time didn't have
much money to spend, so at school they would learn to take care of their books, clothes and other belongings so they would
last longer. They were taught to be patriotic and to support American soldiers.
It was hard to believe that just after what was thought
to be Hollywood's greatest decade there seemed to be such lost promise. With the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor, and the
resulting outbreak of World War II, the American film industry suffered a slump during the early part of the 1940s. As it
did following the Great Depression, Hollywood would have to again find a formula for survival.
The world was in
turmoil, and oddly enough, it would be this very same War that helped start Hollywood on its comeback. In an effort to support
the national war effort, Hollywood studios began producing a large number of movies that became war-time favorites. One of
the classic motion pictures of all-time was also a subtle wartime propaganda film Casablanca, was released in 1942. Many stars
of the time enlisted in the Armed Forces, or provided entertainment for the troops, resulting in a large boost in morale for
both the military and the general public.
These war related efforts showed immediate results, as major movie studio
profits began to grow to record levels. As the war drew to an end, so did the number of films produced that were war related.
However, the influence of World War II has a permanent residence in the history of the motion picture industry. Some of the
most memorable war-time classics would include Guadalcanal Diary, Bataan, Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo, The Story of G.I. Joe,
They Were Expendable, A Walk In The Sun, and a great many more. There were also a number of pictures dedicated to portraying
life after war for the returning veteran. One of the most well-known of these stories is also one of the best films in motion
picture history - The Best Years of Our Lives. This multi-Oscar winning picture (including Best Picture) touched the hearts
and lives of all Americans.
The 1940's also brought refinement to the art of film making, with technological
improvements in sound recording, lighting, color usage, and special effects. These production advances made film-watching
a much more enjoyable activity leading the way to record setting profits from 1943-1946. The light, escapist entertainment
offered by Hollywood musicals during the 1940's skyrocketed their appeal, and a new breed of directors and stars rose
It seemed that once again Hollywood had withstood a great challenge and survived to flourish. Some
however, realized that right before their eyes the greatest threat to Hollywood's dominance of the entertainment industry
was busily developing. The popularity of television was growing by leaps and bounds.
It is May 10th 1940 and Churchill is
Prime Minister of Britain. The BBC, Guardian and other left liberal news outlets publish polls stating that 60 % of Britons
believe that the war against fascist Germany cannot be won and that the French are an unworthy ally. The questions used in
the poll were inadequate containing ambiguous phraseology but the news outlets don’t report this – just the
summary results. Instead the media focuses on the hardships, the trauma and destruction of war and record pessimist Britain’s
dismay in defeating the Wehrmacht and supporting the fast collapsing French army.
Most of the media is hostile to Churchill,
and tired of his bombast. One of their favorites - Lord Halifax prevented from being Prime Minister because he sits in the
Lords and not the Commons - convenes many press conferences informing Britons that appeasement with Hitler is the safest
guarantor of the British empire. The media endlessly recycles Halifax’s editorials in which he states that fighting
Germany contravenes international and British law, since the Jews and Poles provoked the current conflict. He maintains
that the British empire has no reason to interfere in the internal politics of Europe and that the two empires can peacefully
coexist. Such ideas resonate within the media and their polling affiliates. At the end of May 72 % of Britons feel that
Halifax’s demand that peace be sought with Germany would be ‘appropriate’.
To support the anti-war group the BBC
broadcasts the already long list of dead military, the perils of fighting Germany alone, portrays the Americans as avaricious
Jewish dominated parasites unwilling to formally aid Britain, and proposes that Europe united under one state and one leader
is a historical destiny, quelling troublesome feuds once and for all. On British state owned TV well known British music
stars and actresses are seen meeting with Hitler in attempts to broker a peace settlement, some more of the more raffish
lot are photographed sitting atop Panzer tanks and parading in Gestapo uniforms. Many try to convince the British public
that continuing the war with Germany would be unconscionable and will kill millions of innocent children and that the British
public must stop their domestic military-industrial complex. A top pop song elaborates that ‘Germans love their children
too’. Polls in England state that Churchill has only 22 % general support and almost none amongst women, ethnic, environmental
groups and gay rights organizations.
Sympathetic documentaries and films are hurriedly shown in England during May and June 1940, in
theatres and on state owned TV, pointing out that Hitlerism and Nazism is nothing more than the realization of Germanic
ambition and historical destiny. They focus on German discipline, literary and musical achievements and the valid German
need for more land. Indeed Hitler is portrayed in such episodes as a great and noble leader, resurrecting a decrepit and
shattered Germany. Nazism is depicted in editorials and on campuses as a uber-philosophy and historical life-force, based
on great accomplishments, community-love, and national pride – it is the new world order. The destruction of freedom,
life and liberal values are never touched upon. Hitlerism and fascism excites the media and academic elite which publish
around the clock, sycophantic essays on the dialectical inevitability of fascist power.
While Hitler’s service in the Bavarian Army during World War I he saw the great power of War
Propaganda especially as applied by the allies. He clearly understood the fact that the Central Powers especially Austria
and Germany did not manage to use propaganda in a skilled manner and the Allies on the contrary used it excellently. Irrespective
of which side of the war used propaganda in the most provident way, the important fact here is that Hitler had find out something
that he would later apply to his Third Reich’s benefit. His War propaganda expert in the World War II became Dr. Joseph
Goebbles. Hitler found out that creating what mainly added up to be a lie being changed to sound as if it were the simple
truth, and subsequently direct this simple lie to people which were uneducated, or at least to those he supposed had no education
or most defenseless, it could let him manipulate the feelings and emotions of people to make them correspond to what he wanted.
Under uneducated people Hitler understood those who had no knowledge of the subject matter in which the propaganda is contained.
This was a very effectual technique
specifically during the war, because if someone could persuade the enemy that they were in fact losing the war and it does
not matter if they were or not in reality, the will of those people would weaken. During the war propaganda was the idea
that truly attracted Hitler’s attention, propaganda was also applied by Hitler in other fields such as persuading
the Jews who were on the run in Germany in the time of holocaust to come out and surrender. The lie that Hitler used in
this case is that he would merely exile them out of Germany and that the concentration camps were meant only for those of
them who committed crimes against the Reich.
and the period after the war ended in 1945, produced some of the most difficult times for theatre and pantomime. In the early
days of the war in 1940 it looked as if all places of public entertainment would be closed indefinitely, and one by one the
country’s theatres opened their doors, and the world of pantomime existed as a glittering escape from the streets ravaged
by nightly air raids and austere conditions at home and abroad. It was an era of great producers and performers. They
had survived the onslaught of the cinema, and, in these pre-television days, drew from the popular radio shows and variety
shows to provide some of the greatest pantomime stars.
BAM! Can you hear that? That's the sound of weapons in World War II. In the 1940's, it was not the happiest decade.
It was actually full of killing and blood. Yet, it also had some interesting sports, games, and famous people. Before World
War II there were many poor people. Suddenly there were headlines saying, "Japs declare war. Attack U.S." After
the war, the "Baby Boom" era began. If you don't know what "Baby Boom" is, I'll explain. After
the war, the survivors came home. There were many marriages and they started to have many babies. People born in this era
were called "Baby Boomers."
Soldiers of the
glorious Finnish army! Peace has been concluded between Finland and Soviet Russia, a harsh peace in which Soviet Russia has
been ceded nearly every battlefield on which you have shed your blood on behalf of everything we hold sacred and dear. You
did not want war; you loved peace, work and progress; but you were forced into a struggle in which you have achieved great
deeds, deeds that will shine for centuries in the annals of history.
places that command History, Today they are places to walk. When the veterans leave, there will remain to us only these places to recall
us what occurred there, on that day in June 1944.
They fought in
canvas and wood biplanes that could barely fly 100 MPH. Men like von Richthofen, Rickenbacker, Bishop, Guynemer, Mannock,
Ball, who flew airplanes with names like Spad, Fokker, Albatros, Nieuport, and Sopwith Camel. In this era, the top speeds
were about 100 MPH. When the pilots ventured ten miles over the enemy lines, that was a notable event. The pilots carried
no parachutes. The airplanes were made of wood and canvas; when they caught on fire, it spread quickly, and spelled certain
death for the occupants.
section focuses on the history of the Holocaust, chronicling the years from 1918 to the present. Hitler's rise to power
was the initiation of a period that wrought great fear and destruction. Millions were forced to live in ghettos, only to be
deported later to the concentration camps. The tragic details remained obscure until the liberation of the death camps and
the further revelations during the Nuremberg War Trials. The subsections below offer a simplified outline for thinking about
how the Holocaust unfolded.
The term "Old Time Radio"
refers to the entertainment programs that were broadcast to the public from the early 1920s to the early 1960s. In the beginning,
most radio programs emulated the vaudeville acts that were the mainstay of public amusement before radio. Comics and singers
ruled the airwaves! Best of all, you no longer had to leave your home to enjoy their talents! Eventually, however, audiences
matured and other types of programs were added to the radio schedule. Drama series became extremely popular including shows
about doctors, soap operas, and even movie scripts that were adapted for radio. Action series brought cops, robbers, private
detectives, and westerns into the home! Fantasy series thrilled audiences with well known characters including Superman and
the Green Hornet! Horror fans got their share of ghosts, vampires, and werewolves. Those who craved science fiction got
their weekly craving for tales of the future, space travel, and exploration of the unknown. Game shows like "You Bet
Your Life" gave the average person an escape from everyday life!
This is the place
to find Old Time Radio shows that have been featured within the past week. The shows are usually kept here for a week or so
after their day in the spotlight on the Today's Features page.
At its peak,
the British Empire was the largest formal empire that the world had ever known. As such, its power and influence stretched
all over the globe; shaping it in all manner of ways. This site is dedicated to analysing the history of the British Empire:
The triumphs, the humiliations, the good that it brought and the bad that it inflicted. For better or worse the British Empire
had a massive impact on the history of the world. It is for this reason that this site tries to bring to life the peoples,
cultures, adventures and domination that made the Empire such a powerful institution. It is neither an apology for, nor a
nostalgic reminiscent of the institution that so dominated the world for over a century. Rather, it analyses and describes
the vast institution that so influenced the shape of the world that we see today.
to Don Mabry's Historical Text Archive ! The HTA publishes high quality articles, books, essays, documents, historical
photos, and links, screened for content, for a broad range of historical subjects. It was founded in 1990 in Mississippi and
is one of the oldest history sites on the Internet. This site is dynamic with regular additions to its contents and its link
Army Theme tune was penned by Jimmy Perry and Derek Taverner in 1969. The feel of the tune and the sentiment in the lyrics
are so 'right' that many believe they are listening to a real war-time song. Bud Flanagan sang the lyrics, it was
his last song recorded before he died. There have been many versions recorded at different stages, including one by Arthur
His parents, Wolf and Yetta (Kitty) Weintrop were Polish
Jews who fled to London in the mid 1870s as a result of Eastern European pogroms. They had ten children all born in London.
In 1881 they lived in Brick Lane and by 1891 had moved on to 12 Hanbury Street, Spitalfields. At the time of the 1901 census
the family were still at Hanbury Street, with Reuben aged 4 living with six of his siblings and his parents over a Fried Fish
shop. They later owned a barber shop and tobacconist in Whitechapel. Flanagan attended school in Petticoat Lane, and by the
age of 10 was working as call-boy at the Cambridge Music Hall. In 1908, he made his début in a talent contest at the
London Music Hall in Shoreditch, performing conjuring tricks as Fargo, The Boy Wizard. In 1910, he sailed with the SS Majestic
to New York, where he had a variety of jobs before returning to England in 1915 and joining the Royal Field Artillery, in
France. Here he met the unpopular Sergeant Major from whom he later adopted his stage name. In 1919 he formed a comedy double
act, Flanagan and Roy. he met his wife Anne, daughter of Irish comedian Johnny Quinn, (The Singing Clown), and in 1926 their
son Buddy was born. He is best known as part of a double act with Chesney Allen, Flanagan and Allen. They had first met
on active service in Flanders, but did not work together until 1926, touring with a Florrie Forde show. They established a
reputation and were booked by Val Parnell at the Holborn Empire. As music hall comedians, they would often feature a mixture
of comedy and music in their act and this led to a successful recording career as a duo and roles in film and television.
Flanagan and Allen were both also members of The Crazy Gang, appearing in the first show at the London Palladium in 1931,
and continued to work with the group, concurrently with their double-act career.
Flanagan and Allen's songs
featured the same, usually gentle humour for which the duo were known in their live performances, and during the Second World
War reflected the experiences of ordinary people during wartime. Songs like We're Going To Hang Out The Washing On The
Siegfried Line mocked the German defences (Siegfried Line), while others like Miss You sang of missing one's sweetheart
during enforced absences. Other songs such as their most famous Underneath the Arches (which Flanagan co-wrote with Reg Connelly)
had universal themes such as friendship, which again, helped people relate to the subject matter. The music was usually melodic,
following a binary verse, verse chorus structure, with a small dance band or orchestra providing the backing. The vocals were
distinctive because while Flanagan was at least a competent singer and sang the melody lines, Allen used an almost spoken
delivery to provide the harmonies.
Flanagan and Allen stopped working together with Chesney Allen's retirement
in 1945, when he gave up performing to become a theatrical agent; but Flanagan continued working until his death. His last
recording was Jimmy Perry and Derek Taverner's Who Do You Think You Are Kidding, Mr Hitler?, recorded shortly before his
death in 1968, which was the theme to the British sitcom series Dad's Army. The song was a deliberate pastiche of the
sort of songs Flanagan had sung during the war and, being so nostalgic, was very popular with the public.
The attack on
Pearl Harbour was a surprise attack against the United States' naval base at Pearl Harbour, Hawaii by the Japanese navy,
on the morning of Sunday, December 7, 1941, resulting in the United States becoming involved in World War II. It was intended
as a preventive action to remove the US Pacific Fleet as a factor in the war Japan was about to wage against Britain, the
Netherlands, and the United States. Two aerial attack waves, totalling 353 aircraft, launched from six Japanese aircraft carriers,
intending to reduce or eliminate United States' military power in the Pacific. The attack wrecked two U.S. Navy
battleships, one mine layer, and two destroyers beyond repair, and destroyed 188 aircraft; personnel losses were 2,388 killed
and 1,178 wounded.
In spite of the latest intelligence
reports about the missing aircraft carriers (his most important targets), Admiral Nagumo decided to continue the attack with
his force of six carriers and 423 aircraft. At a range of 230 miles north of Oahu , he launched the first wave of a two-wave
attack. Beginning at 0600 hours his first wave consisted of 183 fighters and torpedo bombers which struck at the fleet in
Pearl Harbor and the airfields in hickam, Kaneohe and Ewa. The second strike, launched at 0715 hours, consisted of 167 aircraft,
which again struck at the same targets. At 0753 hours the first wave consisting of 40 Nakajima B5N2 'Kate' torpedo
bombers, 51 Aichi D3A1 'Val' dive bombers, 50 high altitude bombers and 43 Zeros struck airfields and Pearl Harbor
Within the next hour, the second wave arrived and continued the attack.
Star Roles and Film biographies contains a selected sampling of the starring roles that best define the screen presence or
persona of some of the greatest stars of the American cinema. The definitive screen role is often the one for which the actor
or actress is best-remembered. In some cases, some actors/actresses - over a long, prolific career - have had more than one
exemplary or essential example of their acting portrayed in films.
The Skylighters were the 800-odd men of the four batteries
of the 225th AAA Searchlight Battalion. After training at Camp Davis, North Carolina, the 225th arrived in England just before
New Year's Day 1944, and became part of the antiaircraft defense of England. In mid-June, the Skylighters landed on Omaha
Beach and formed part of the defense of Normandy. Thereafter, for most of their dash across France and the Low Countries,
the 225th were attached to the 9th Air Force's 422nd and 425th Night Fighter Squadrons, who flew the deadly P-61 Black
Widow interceptor against the Luftwaffe. In their role with the night fighters, the 225th received partial credits on the
downing of 36 enemy planes and V-1 buzz bombs. In addition, the battalion's 36 General Electric searchlights were used
to put up over 4,000 light canopies that saved countless planes as well as pilots and aircrews that were lost or disabled
in night combat in the ETO. Skylighters radar sets were used to vector the Black Widows to their targets time and time again.
At war's end, the 225th began training for deployment to the Pacific, and served for a while as part of the Army of Occupation.
Following the surrender of Japan, Skylighters began rotating back home, and by December 1945 the unit was disbanded.
Best of British
Magazine Britain's favourite nostalgia monthly magazine is packed with stories and pictures guaranteed to bring the memories
flooding back. Offering page after page of timeless reading, Best of British covers every aspect of life from the 1940s through
to today, recording the way it once was and demonstrating what makes Britain so special.
in Buckinghamshire, the historic site of secret British code breaking activities during World War Two and the birthplace of
the modern computer.
In 1939, Nazi U-boats were wreaking
havoc on military and merchant ships. The submarines appeared from nowhere, torpedoing entire fleets before disappearing
beneath the waves. Allied commanders knew that if they could break the Enigma code, they could listen in on the U-boats’
orders and discover where they were. There was only one problem; the odds against breaking the Enigma code were 150 000
000 000 000 000 000 to 1. The
Allies recruited some of the country’s brightest mathematicians and sent them to Bletchley Park, a mansion in Buckinghamshire
that had been commandeered by the military. Their mission was simple; to crack the Enigma code.
Cracking the Enigma code was no simple matter. Enigma’s
complexity was bewildering and the codes changed daily.
The Bombe was the work of mathematician
Alan Turing, the father of modern computing. Based on the pioneering work of Polish code breakers, the Bombe was an early
form of computer that could crunch numbers at a dizzying speed. In 1940 the Enigma code was defeated. Not only had Turing
invented the forerunner of today’s PC, he also proved that no matter how clever the code, any Private Key Cryptography
can be broken if you chuck enough processing power at it.
When France falls in June 1940 more
polls are published in a frenzy of worried activity revealing that 80 % of Britons are pessimistic or uncertain about the
war’s outcome with an astonishing 90 % expressing some level of concern about the government’s performance. Some
extreme editorials charge that Churchill lied about the nature of the war and the reality of fighting an invincible Germany
during his May 1940 Parliamentary speeches. His speeches and statements are re-parsed, picked over and extensively criticized
for their naivety, romanticism and extreme patriotism.
Political and media analysts carp about Churchill’s own past including his poor academic record,
his dubious military escapades, and his criminal guilt in the battle of Omdurman in 1898 in the Sudan when black native
fighters were destroyed by modern military technology. They also point out Churchill’s personal combat against the
Boers, the Indians and Afghans, stating that bigotry and racial hatred are at the core of Churchill’s character. Talk
shows abound with analysts and those who ‘know’ Churchill stating that Churchill’s past is inglorious
and at odds with current post World War One modernity of enlightened thoughtful liberalism. Even his vain, womanizing syphilitic
father, a political star that crashed through arrogance and illness is dragged from the history books to prove that genetically
Churchill is an unstable character and the son of drunken political bore.
Friends of the
40s has finally arrived, ready to serve as your online news source to all thing 1940s. As well as keeping you well informed
of all the latest events and happenings on the 40s scene, we provide a resource to the fans, listing all the best in 1940s
entertainment, re-enactment groups and period traders. We also hope to provide community facilities for all the online 40s
fanatics. Look no further than Friends of the 40s for untrained forties goodness.
Churchill’s past and own drinking
excesses are front page stories, with news analysts and experts linking Churchill’s terrible character with the losing
war effort. Many call for not only Churchill’s resignation but his impeachment for not doing enough to prevent the
fall of the British expeditionary army and the humiliation of Dunkirk. The BBC reports that Churchill and his Ministers
are not only losing the war, but also profiting from war contracts through firms closely allied with the Conservative political
effort and that Churchill has sent his own small fortune out of the country to Canada. No evidence is given on these allegations
but no proof is asked for. New public polling puts Churchill with a 13 % approval rating and calls for his resignation echo
more loudly each day.
The anti-Conservative and anti-Churchill media also stoke antipathy to Churchill’s new coalition government
by focusing on the incapability of British forces to fight. While willful, manly Germany prepares for the invasion of the
British Isles, the media is adamant that the government is doing nothing. The British Labor party, sensing Churchill’s
political weakness, reveal documents which support the position that the government is disorganized and drifting with no
rational plan to wage war. A recently demoted Cabinet member releases photos of a drunk Churchill slurring his words at
a private dinner function while discussing war strategy, and publishes letters from Churchill to his War Cabinet which apparently
prove that Churchill has no real plan of national defense. Clement Attlee leader of the Labor Party, along with Lord Halifax,
holds a press interview on an important TV talk show criticizing Churchill for the Norway fiasco along with inadequate funding
of the armed forces and a lack of strategic focus. Atlee contends that appeasing Germany for two to three years, would enable
Britain to retool and rearm, and cites the Soviet-Nazi pact of 1939 as an example of judicious statesmanship. Indeed Atlee
calls for a British-like ‘Stalin’ to take over the government and re-energize its martial spirit. The media
gives Attlee’s criticisms wide coverage and some propose that an Attlee government would have a more nuanced and realistic
appraisal of confronting Germany, and would be smart enough to elicit support from ‘allies’ and the international
community. Media analysis and polls are produced showing Atlee as Briton’s top choice for Prime Minister.
Sailors, Airmen and Families Association (SSAFA) Forces Help is the leading national charity committed to helping and supporting
those who serve in our Armed Forces, those who used to serve, and the families of both. We provide a reliable, caring and
trusted service to more that 50,000 people each year. Our professionally trained staff and network of 7,000 volunteers
provide practical and financial assistance, emotional support and a wide range of services to ensure that SSAFA Forces Help
makes a real difference wherever there is a need and whenever anybody turns to us for help.
Sir Winston was one of the most prominent politicians of the 20th century in the United
Kingdom. He was surely the most famous Prime Minister of the 20th century. His personality compounded talented author, outstanding
speaker, artist, and a great leader that managed to escape Britain’s defeat and even be among the winning nations at
the end of World War Two.
Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill was born on the 30th of November, 1874 in Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire
in the family of Lord Randolph Churchill and Jennie Jerome. Winston’s father was a famous Tory politician, descendent
of John Churchill (1st duke of Marlborough, the hero of the wars against French Louis XIV). Winston’s mother was the
daughter of a prominent American financier Leonard W. Jerome.
Churchill was a very poor student at school that later resulted
his father to make young Winston to join the military. Here again he did not show great results and passed the entrance examination
to the Royal Military College only from the third try. However, he took studying at college seriously and graduated 20th in
class out of 130. After graduating from college Winston Churchill joined the 4th Hussars and ended up in Cuba reporting on
Cuban independence war from Spain. A couple of months later Churchill returned back home from Cuba and left for India along
with his division. In India he for the first time he experienced being a soldier and a journalist at the same time.
becoming Prime Minister in May 1940, Winston Churchill visited the Cabinet War Rooms to see for himself what preparations
had been made to allow him and his War Cabinet to continue working throughout the expected air raids on London. It was there,
in the underground Cabinet Room, he announced 'This is the room from which I will direct the war'.
The future prime minister decided
to finish his career in the military and go into politics. For the living he wanted to write articles for different newspapers
and magazines. The tradition to lose for the first time did not fail for Churchill when he tried to be elected as a Conservative
at Oldham. Instead of a Conservative at Oldham Winston found himself in South Africa reporting on the South African War for
British newspaper The Morning Post. Not being lucky was sort of a story of Churchill’s life, this time he was captured
by Boers as a prisoner in military prison in South Africa. However, he managed to escape from the prison which later made
him nearly a hero when he went back home.
After coming back from Africa he decided to run for the Parliament again in 1900. This time he
achieved his goal. Being a member of the Parliament Churchill experienced difficulties with public speaking as he had a
speech defect (that he actually never lost). It was a big challenge for him but it did not break him up and he never left
In 1904 due to some disagreements with his party members over trade tariffs Churchill had to join
the Liberals. In the new spot he quickly gained popularity for his brave debates with those who argued with him. In 1908
Churchill became the president of the Board of Trade. That same year Winston Churchill married (the first and the last time)
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across the UK, and providing a practical framework of best practice for opening up and encouraging the re-use of public sector
information. This work helps inform today´s decisions and ensure that they become tomorrow´s permanent record.
At Past Perfect
our passion is for natural, original sound of the 190s, 30s and 40s. Our CDs enjoy a world-wide reputation for their unique
clarity and fidelity. Big bands, trad jazz, dance bands, love songs, swing and more... we use the very latest computer technology
to achieve this, but will never use any of the gimmicks beloved of contemporary sound engineers. No fake reverberation or
artificial stereo on Past Perfect CDs just pure classic sound.
Society London. here are the title deeds of freedom which should lie in every cottage home we must never cease to proclaim
in fearless tones the great principles of freedom and the rights of man which are the joint inheritance of the English-speaking
world and which through Magna Carta, the Bill of Rights, the Habeas Corpus, trial by jury, and the English common law find
their most famous expression in the American Declaration of Independence.
I would encourage
anyone with memories of WW II to write them down for the benefit of their offspring and those who were not there to understand
the times. You need not write a book. A simple paragraph or two of even one moment should be recorded. My visitors and I would
of course enjoy the privilege of being able to read them on this page.
ASAC offices are staffed by Volunteers
from various ex-service organisations (ESOs). Our Advocates are fully qualified having completed studies via the Training
and Information Program which is funded and coordinated by the Department of Veteran Affairs (DVA). Advocates do not
receive payment for their services from either the DVA or any other Government Department.
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the beginning of World War II in September 1939, a POW camp called Kriegsgefangenen-Mannschafts-Stammlager (Stalag) VII A
was established north of Moosburg. Originally it was planned for 10,000 prisoners, but at the end of the war some 80,000 Allied
soldiers - mostly French and Soviet citizens - had to live in it.
French, Belgian and Dutch soldiers taken prisoner during the Battle of France started arriving in May 1940. Many were transferred
on to other camps, but close to 40,000 French remained at Stalag VII-A throughout the war.
British, Greek and Yugoslavia
prisoners arrived from the Balkans Campaign in May and June 1941. A few months later Soviet prisoners started arriving, mostly
officers. At the end of the war there were still 27 Soviet generals in Moosburg who had survived the mistreatment that they,
like all Soviet prisoners, had been subjected to. More British Commonwealth and Polish prisoners came from the North
African campaign and the offensive against the Italian held islands in the Mediterranean. They were brought here from Italian
PoW camps after the Armistice with Italy in September 1943. Italian soldiers were also imprisoned.
first American arrivals came after the Tunisia Campaign in December 1942, and the Italian Campaign in 1943. Large numbers
of Americans were captured in the Battle of the Bulge in December 1944. Among the last arrivals were officers
from Stalag Luft III who had been force marched from Sagan in Silesia (now Żagań), Poland). They arrived 2 February
1945. They were followed by more prisoners marched from other camps threatened by the advancing Soviets, including part
of the American officers that had been marched from Oflag 64 in Szubin, via Oflag XIII-B, under their senior officer Lt.Col.
Paul Goode. During the 5½ years about 1000 prisoners died at the camp, over 800 of them Soviets. They were
buried in a cemetery in Oberreit, south of Moosburg. Most died from illness, some from injuries during work. It has been
said that there were some casualties from Allied bombs at work.
The camp was started in September 1939 to house Polish
prisoners from the German September 1939 offensive. They arrived while the wooden barracks were under construction and for
several weeks lived in tents. British, French, Belgian and Dutch soldiers taken prisoner during the Battle of France started
arriving in May 1940. Many were transferred on to other camps, but close to 40,000 French remained at Stalag VII-A throughout
British, Greek and Yugoslavia prisoners arrived from the Balkans Campaign in May and June 1941. A few
months later Soviet prisoners started arriving, mostly officers. At the end of the war there were still 27 Soviet generals
in Moosburg who had survived the mistreatment that they, like all Soviet prisoners, had been subjected to.
British Commonwealth and Polish prisoners came from the North African campaign and the offensive against the Italian held
islands in the Mediterranean. They were brought here from Italian PoW camps after the Armistice with Italy in September 1943.
Italian soldiers were also imprisoned.
The first American arrivals came after the Tunisia Campaign in December
1942, and the Italian Campaign in 1943. Large numbers of Americans were captured in the Battle of the Bulge in December 1944.
Among the last arrivals were officers from Stalag Luft III who had been force marched from Sagan in Silesia (now Żagań),
Poland). They arrived 2 February 1945. They were followed by more prisoners marched from other camps threatened by the advancing
Soviets, including part of the American officers that had been marched from Oflag 64 in Szubin, via Oflag XIII-B, under their
senior officer Lt.Col. Paul Goode.
During the 5½ years about 1000 prisoners died at the camp, over 800 of
them Soviets. They were buried in a cemetery in Oberreit, south of Moosburg. Most died from illness, some from injuries during
work. It has been said that there were some casualties from Allied bombs at work sites.
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