know fashion craze of the 1950’s were petticoats and poodle skirts. Leading the pack was designer Anne Fogarty. Born
in 1919 as Anne Whitney in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, she ended up designing this look for juniors at Margot Dresses in 1950.
She moved on to Saks 5th Avenue and wrote a book entitled “Wife Dressing” in 1959 that offered housewives advice
on how to look their best while doing their women’s work. She then opened her own salon in 1962 where she added the
popular Empire and ruffles silhouettes to her designs. She sensationalized the fashion world by being one of the first American Designers to produce a new shocking trend in swimwear: the bikini.
Fashion from 1945-1960 was dominated by nylon,
beehive hairstyles, and hot pink pumps. Also popular were petticoats. When the French fashion houses reopened after World War II, Dior introduced
the "New Look" silhouette. Because war restrictions on textiles ceased, the New Look silhouette included longer
skirts, either full or fitted. Emphasis on the waist and soft shoulder lines also marked Dior's influence at this time.
In, until hemlines began to rise and a more futuristic egg-type silhouette began to appear in 1958. Fashion from 1945-1960
was dominated by nylon, beehive hairstyles, and hot pink pumps. Also popular were petticoats. When the French fashion houses
reopened after World War II, Dior introduced the "New Look" silhouette. Because war restrictions on textiles
ceased, the New Look silhouette included longer skirts, either full or fitted. Emphasis on the waist and soft shoulder lines
also marked Dior's influence at this time. In, until hemlines began to rise and a more futuristic egg-type silhouette
began to appear in 1958. New styles and designs for jewelry also began to make their mark on fashion. While special metals found in tungsten wedding bands had not quite become common yet, gold and silver were still very popular. Many jewelers carried various rings and necklaces
along with other items that would compliment the fashion of the time period.
1950s fashion was something of a turning point in 20th
century fashion, as the post-war era moved into full swing. The glamorous clothes 1950s actresses such as Elizabeth Taylor,
Marilyn Monroe, Grace Kelly, Bridgette Bardot, Sophia Lauren and Audrey Hepburn adorned movie screens, and a feeling of hope
and euphoria dominated with conclusion of the Second World War.
In the UK, the government promised to "Make Britain Great" again. There was significant optimism for the
world in general, and that included the fashion industry. After years of hardship and drudgery, where women had worn utilitarian
work garments (and when there were fewer men around to impress) clothes 1950s shook off the hackles of practicality and gave
women the opportunity to dress up in more luxurious and feminine clothes. Christian Dior, who had launched his New Look in1947,
an extravagant, and in equal parts fashion and political statement, brought women back to life with excessive fabric (some
of his skirts required 18m of fabric), a return to femininity, and a taste of glamour. Alongside Dior, other key designers
for clothes 1950s were Balenciaga, Jacques Fath and Hubert de Givenchy. Clothes 1950s are remembered mainly for two contrasting silhouettes: the full skirt that swirled and sashayed, and
the slim pencil tubular skirt that fell to the knee. Both were seen with a nipped in waist, and strategic padding and underwear
did much to improve the less-than-perfect figure, so the silhouette could look fabulous on anyone. The nylon all-on-one corselet
gave a waspish waist, pulled the hips in and shunted the breasts upwards and outwards.
Whilst clothes 1950s required a rigid under structure in many instances, designers such as Jacques Fath, master of
the undulating line, began to nurture the lifestyle changes that were happening across the globe and encouraged women to take
a more relaxed attitude to fashion. In 1957, Givenchy started the trend for straighter, shift-like dresses that had no waist
at all by inventing the sack dress, an almost formless dress freeing women from the restriction to which they had become accustomed.
Just as the food of the 1950s was the start to a revolution of new ways, so were leisure activities of the time.
College and high school kids started to be more rebellious than previous generations. Male college students liked to take part in an activity known as panty raids, which involved running through the girl’s
dorms and throwing undergarments out of the window as what they claimed to be their "prize". Another activity found
amusing at this time was trying to fit as many people as possible into places, such as, a Volkswagen Beetle or a telephone
booth. To add to the corruption of the time, alcohol began to come back into the picture due to the end of prohibition 20
years prior. Televisions and radios began to consume many students’ lives.The 1950’s is also known as the Golden
Age of televisions. Outside of all this corruption, many kids still enjoyed just going to local diners and sipping on a milkshake
while crowding around the jukebox.
1950’s was a very introducing and appealing decade for entertainment. Television was one of the biggest and most popular
creations of the time. Television introduced a new way to relax and enjoy the company of others while watching a comedy, thriller,
etc. Some popular television shows were "American Bandstand," "I Love Lucy," "Mickey Mouse Club,"
and "The Families of the Fifties (Molly)". Also, movies made a giant step into the future when the first 3D movie,
Bwana Devil, was made in 1952. (Molly) During this decade, Rock N’ Roll music became very popular. Elvis Presley’s
music was very popular among the teen audience; however, parents were not big fans of his music. Entertainment grew a lot
in the fifties and hasn’t changed much in the concepts of what we do for entertainment today.
Fashion in the 1950’s became more "risky"
compared to previous fashion generations, due to more tightly fitted clothing and tailored silhouettes. Poodle skirts and
circle skirts were very popular amongst teen girls; however, pencil skirts were typically more popular with older women. Men
in the 1950’s did not care as much about fashion as they did about being comfortable. Men’s clothing was kept
simple and easy to manage. Tweed and flannel jackets were very popular among men; however, suit jackets were also just as
The 1950’s was an achieving decade for technology,
especially in the world of television. Television came about in the 1950’s leading to some of the most popular television
shows. Some popular and significant things that were created in the 1950’s were the first copy machine, the first leak-free
ballpoint pen, the first plastic coke bottle, the first solar battery, and the first car with an all fiberglass body. (Molly)
The Chevrole Corvette was the first car with an all fiberglass body, giving it a competitive advantage over the other muscle
cars from this era. With an all fiberglass body, the car weighed a lot less, giving the car more acceleration and top speed.
During the 1950’s many of the foods and trends that are included in a lot
of students’ everyday lives, started to evolve. Life as we know it would not be the same without fast food restaurants.
During this time, fast food restaurants, such as McDonalds, White Castle, and Wendy’s, began their successful climb
up the corporate ladder. Frozen foods are also a very large part of an average college student’s daily routine. This
was also invented in the 1950’s, and, as well, made a large and lasting impression on American society. Many of the
kids snacked on things such as popcorn, Chex Mix, Tang, and milkshakes. One can look at the 1950s as the beginning of easy
ways to make a meal; however, many families tended to barbeque and have healthy home cooked food.
American women regularly went to Paris for their clothes
and jewels, and important American jewelry houses opened offices or showrooms in Paris, both to keep their traveling clients
faithful and to keep up with the latest styles. In the matter of jewelry design, the French have always been regarded as leaders.
In fact, the adjective ‘French’ has, for centuries, been synonymous with the best and most luxurious in workmanship
and design. Movie makers and advertising agencies have long known that just adding the adjective ‘French’ to a
title or headline would make people perceive it as better, sexier, tastier, chicer, more luxurious and extravagant. Pretty
much throughout the 20th century, the French reputation for excellence in design, workmanship and that “je or Boivin.
There were also a number of smaller but very important houses that produced work of exceptional quality and original design
– Marchak, Mellerio, Sterlé and Chaumet, among others - jewelry that was often the equal of the bigger and better
known houses. Top dealers and knowledgeable collectors seek out these unique pieces, made decades ago when workshops could
afford to spend an extraordinary amount of time and labor fashioning an individual piece. I think too many people forget that
a huge diamond rock, while beautiful, is not really a substitute for an intricately crafted, signed piece of period jewelry
that possesses interesting design and timeless style.
Although British fashion writers
in the 1940s argued that England’s strong textile and tailoring traditions would be the sole factors determining the
international prominence of British fashion, it was, in fact, English designers’ and consumers’ willingness to
turn their backs on established traditions and to capture the mood of the new era—a move that propelled British fashions
to previously unseen heights. A new spirit of artistic innovation took root in a British society that was more youthful, affluent,
politically liberal, and egalitarian, and Britain rose to dominate the world fashion scene in the 1960s. In tandem with the
Beatles' music and the new pop art, innovative British fashions were exported throughout the world. However, this dominance
could not and did not last, as the "mod" youth culture evolved into the flower-power, hippie scene, and other countries
caught up with Britain and became fashion centers in their own right. Nonetheless, British fashion, with its characteristic
turn towards youth and equality, continued to assert itself through other movements including Punk in the 1970’s and
Rule Britannia in the ‘90s, assuring that British fashion would not return to its staid past.
Teddy Boys were the first youth
fashion subculture of the post-war period, marked by working-class, macho young men who combined Edwardian dress with the
American "zoot" suit.10 They wore long sideburns, carefully coiffed hair, and were the first group of men to be
preoccupied with shopping and appearance without sacrificing their masculinity. Meanwhile, Mary Quant opened Bazaar on King’s
Road in Chelsea, planting the first seed for the boutique experience
After the war, birth rates had skyrocketed before
they began to decrease in the 1960s, and "The peak of the post-war baby boom in 1947 meant that unparalleled numbers
of teenagers reached puberty in 1960."15 With new rises in affluence,
these new teenagers also had more money to spend than ever before, and they loudly proclaimed their generation to show that
they were different from their parents and grandparents. Clothes were the greatest expenditure of the young, and with boutiques
that frequently changed their merchandise, there were always new styles to browse and buy.16
Caring little about the Paris establishment or the traditions of couture, young people wanted
fashion that distinctly reflected their generation. As opposed to the fashions
of another youthful decade, the 1920s, where the youthful styles were worn by fashionable women of all ages, the young styles
of the ‘60s were meant only for the young.17 Not only was the "London Look" aimed at the young, it made them
look even younger. Mary Quant was the first great innovator, and her simple, clean designs incorporated "the sort of
garments and fabrics worn by children: skinny pinafore dresses, knee socks, leotards, black stockings, gingham, and flannel."18
Much of what we think of as the mod look in fashion—including the mini-skirt or the use of plastic PVC (polyvinyl chloride)
as a fabric—originated with Quant and spread from her Chelsea boutique Bzaar
The space of the boutique in ‘60s England was almost as innovative
as the fashions themselves: featuring an entire mod experience, with loud pop music, darkened interior, cutting edge art and
décor, and an edgy display of clothes within the shop and in the windows that attracted buyers.24
This represented an entirely new kind of shopping experience, with merchandise that was frequently rotated so shoppers could
return frequently and find new garments. Shopping at boutiques was another of the key aspects that set British fashion apart
in the ‘60s, for the boutiques provided both a conceptual and an actual physical place within which the young and fashionable
rotated. The hip space of the boutique, with its integration of fashion, music, and art represented the entire point-of-view
of the classless, young audience who came to the boutiques not only to buy clothes but also just to hang out and check out
the scene. Boutiques sprang up around Mary Quant’s Chelsea Bazaar, and particularly on London’s King’s Road
and Carnaby Street.25 The most prominent of these boutiques was Biba in Kensington, opened in 1964 by Barbara Hulanicki.
The 50’s was the decade that set everything in
motion. Rock'n'Roll as well as movie idols like James Dean inspired “jeans as fashion”, while teenagers
and parents tried to sort out the “generation gap.” The decade that brought the Baby Boom saw the demand for jeans
explode. Now featured for the first time as a fashion fabric, the denim jean became a leisure garment “ideal for home,
garden or work.” Lee Cooper's success in the home market was tremendous, resulting in the opening of a new factory
in 1952. The year after, jeans for the ladies appeared. And when Lee Cooper launched the “front zip” for their
ladies’ jeans, there was an outcry from a shocked public. The first protests about “youths in jeans” appeared
in the press in 1955, but Lee Cooper was thriving. They designed numerous original cuts for men and women, eventually launching
slacks and jeans as two separate product lines. By now Britain's premiere brand, Lee Cooper expanded and opened a new
factory in Holland in 1955. The year after, they came out with their first line of children’s clothes; and by the end
of the decade, the Dressing Gown range took Lee Cooper into the bedroom too!
Hollywood debut in the 1953 film Roman Holiday made the 24 year old gamine actress an instant star, and she became one of the most popular western film stars of the 1950’s and the
1960’s (Walker 85- 86).1
Particularly, it was her clothes and looks that garnered great attention and admiration, and it is precisely her style that is the focus of this paper. Why
did Hepburn’s style become so popular, why did she have such resonance especially for young white women in the 1950’s? I’m dealing here with possible, shared
readings of Hepburn available, and
also employed, at the time. My examples, though from Finnish sources, serve here to illustrate a wider
”Audrey style” phenomenon in Western countries.
I shall examine a look-alike competition organised by Finnish film magazine Uutisaitta in 1955, and present excerpts from the diary of a young Finnish girl in
the 1950’s, Satu Koskimies,
published in 50-luvun tytöt. Katarina Haavio ja Satu Koskimies. Päiväkirjat 1951-1956 (Katarina Haavio and Satu Koskimies - Girls of the
50’s. Diaries from 1951-1956). According
to Jackie Stacey, the relationship between a female spectator and a star ideal is characterised by “contradictions of similarity and difference, recognition
and separateness” (Stacey 126-127). The mechanisms of stardom are similarly dualistic. A star is like the rest of us, but somehow special and out of reach
(McDonald 7, 12; Welsch 16-17).
Identification, then, is seen here as a diverse and fluid cultural process, where the differences and similarities between star and spectator are constantly negotiated.
Female stars are consumable images of ideal femininity and beauty. Particularly with female spectators, identification with these stars is closely linked
to the consumption of other
commodities (Stacey 3-5; McDonald 5-7; Dyer 2000a, 121-124; Morley 274). So what was at stake in liking Audrey and being like Audrey? It is important to note my own admiration of Hepburn and her style, but also the historical nature
of a star image. The Hepburn
I confront today in magazines and films is not the same encountered by spectators 50 years ago; my reading of her is historically predetermined. Indeed, as
I have discovered firsthand while working on this paper, it is not possible to see a figure like Hepburn without all the meanings associated with her over time.
Hepburn has become an icon,
and her way of dressing – cutting edge and striking 50 years ago – is today a standard of classic style.
Rockabilly fashion, popular in the 1950s, is all
about being laid back and edgy at the same time. The casualness and comfort are what makes it a hit to hip and fashionable
people these days. Rockabilly fashion is best executed with genuine articles coming from the whimsical and long-gone era.
New items with a modern touch are actually easy to find in several online stores. An impressive Rockabilly outfit is not complete,
of course, without those chunky and decorative belt buckles. We visited a number of online stores and have come up with a
guide of the best belt buckles there is. Browse through our list and choose which best suits your taste and sense of style.
Pinupgirlclothing" tops out list of the best websites selling Rockabilly belt buckles. Among the designs that caught
our eyes include: Retro Anchor Tatoo Belt Buckle by Classic Hardware - A handmade anchor design entwined with a rope and surrounded
by starts. The design has already been featured in a number of magazines. "Too Fast To Live" Belt Buckle by Liquorbrand
- True to the retro spirit, the buckle bears a skull-and-flags design in black and white mounted with the words "Too
fast to live, too young to die." Rockabilly Retro V8 Unisex Belt - A design in red and black, the buckle bears the V*
insignia that is surely a must-have in your Rockabilly fashion collection. Printed Natural Wood Belt Buckle With Heart Design
- Features a black heart lined with wood color on a rectangular flat buckle with round edges. Vintage prints surrounding the
heart make it a classic. Rock Rebel Skull Coffin - A coffin-shaped buckle cast from pewter, this one features a skull design
surrounded by intricate filigree patterns. The belt buckle will suit both men and women. "Homeward Bound" Pewter
Unisex Belt Buckle - Created by Sailor Jerry, the buckle looks as if it is made of silver. The overall look is clean and the
design includes a engraved image of a sailing ship. "Daddyzero" also has an impressive collection of Rockabilly
buckle belts, which designs border on the gothic and mysterious. Their prices are affordable, too. Here are some of our picks:
Black White and Chrome Nautical Star Rockabilly - The chrome buckle is cast in an attractive design of black and white. It
features a star overlapping a chrome ring. Double Barrel Derringer Handgun Belt Bucle - An interesting find because this buckle
comes in the shape of a small handgun. This one will surely grab people's attention by the balls. Emily the Strange Black Kitty Cat Belt Buckle - A belt buckle in the form of modern emo icon Emily the Strange's
black cat. The creature is colored black with pink ears and a menacing look, perfect for the modern Rockabilly look. We were
also able to discover "Memoryworks" which has a wide collection cool western Rockabilly belts. Memoryworks.ca features
Rockabilly fashion with glamour and western ideas. Among our recommended buckle belts are: Clark Tractor Belt Buckle - A very
impressive piece, the buckle is enameled in green, black, and bronze and features an image depicting a Texan Clark tractor.
There was a close relationship between the blues and
country music from the very earliest country recordings in the 1920s. The first nationwide "country" hit was "Wreck
of the Old '97", backed with "Lonesome Road Blues", which also became very popular. Jimmie Rodgers,
the "first true country star", was known as the “Blue Yodeler,” and most of his songs used blues-based
chord progressions, although with very different instrumentation and sound than the recordings of his black contemporaries
like Blind Lemon Jefferson and Bessie Smith.
During the 1930s and 1940s, two new sounds emerged. Bob Wills and
his Texas Playboys were the leading proponents of Western Swing, which combined country singing and steel guitar with big
band jazz influences and horn sections; Wills' music found massive popularity. Recordings of Wills' from the mid 40s
to the early 50s include "two beat jazz" rhythms, "jazz choruses", and guitar work that preceded early
rockabilly recordings. Wills is quoted as saying "Rock and Roll? Why, man, that's the same kind of music we've
been playin' since 1928!...But it's just basic rhythm and has gone by a lot of different names in my time. It's
the same, whether you just follow a drum beat like in Africa or surround it with a lot of instruments. The rhythm's what's
After blues artists like Meade Lux Lewis and Pete Johnson launched a nationwide boogie craze starting
in 1938, country artists like Moon Mullican, the Delmore Brothers, Tennessee Ernie Ford, Speedy West, Jimmy Bryant, and the
Maddox Brothers and Rose began recording what was known as “Hillbilly Boogie,” which consisted of "hillbilly"
vocals and instrumentation with a boogie bass line. The Maddox Brothers and Rose were at "the leading edge of rockabilly
with the slapped bass that Fred Maddox had developed". Maddox said, "You've got to have somethin' they can
tap their foot, or dance to, or to make 'em feel it." After World War II the band shifted into higher gear leaning
more toward a whimsical honky-tonk feel, with a heavy, manic bottom end - the slap bass of Fred Maddox. "They played
hillbilly music but it sounded real hot. They played real loud for that time, too..." The Maddoxes were also known for
their lively "antics and stuff." "We always put on a show... I mean it just wasn't us up there pickin'
and singing. There was something going on all the time." "...the demonstrative Maddoxes, helped release white bodies
from traditional motions of decorum... more and more younger white artists began to behave on stage like the lively Maddoxes."
Others believe that they were not only at the leading edge, but were one of the first, if not the first, “Rockabilly”
The most prominent figure in fashion photography in this period was Richard Avedon. He was known
for creating very specific kinds of images, photographs that were narrative in nature, in particular. His images were carefully
staged and crafted in vignette-like scenes, yet retained a sense of spontaneity. Avedon created and
prompted a more progressive look, an aesthetic whose influence is recognizable everywhere in contemporary photography While
he represented the essential look of 50s day glamour, Avedon, like fashion itself, has shown remarkable adaptability in his
work through the past decades. One of his particularly dramatic shifts in artistic and photographic style and sensibility
from his 1950s work involved the products of his collaboration with Calvin Klein. Avedon directed a series of commercials
for the designer, who was launching his line of blue jeans in 1980. The television advertisements featured a fifteen-year-old
Brooke Shields asking, "Want to know what comes between me and my Calvins? Nothing" This kind of sexualized work
was a clear departure from his earlier images of proper and restrained ‘ladies' posing beside flower stalls and
parks. As an aside, Avedon's use of the young actress, Shields, in his campaign, supports and illuminates the increased
overlapping and erasure of distinction in what and whom constitutes a model. Returning to the original topic, such transition
in style is a clear illustration of Avedon's versatility as a photographer and the continued evolution of fashion and
its limits of taste, suggestion and propriety in presenting the clothed (or unclothed) body.
Chanel's stylish, elegant designs revolutionized fashion during the 1910s, freeing women from the uncomfortable and stiff
apparel worn at the end of the 19th century. Chanel furthered her own image: the woman of the 20th century, embodying independence,
success, personality, style, and confidence. The influential Chanel suit, launched in 1924, was an elegant
outfit composed of a knee-length skirt paired with a trim, boxy jacket, traditionally made of woven wool with black trim
and gold buttons and worn with large costume-pearl necklaces.Chanel
also popularized the little black dress, whose blank-slate versatility allowed it to be worn for both day and night. The
black Chanel dress was strapless, backless and more than a little risque. It shocked the general public at large but quickly
became a fashion sensation. The Chanel dress premiered in the third ever edition of Playboy. This added to the controversy
surrounding the Chanel name.
over the years, Chanel's designs were manufactured across more price categories than any other in the high-fashion world.
It was Chanel who also introduced 'costume' jewellery to the world of fashion, using a variety of accessories such
as necklaces, chains or pearls of several strands. A bag with golden handles, an elegant pearl necklace, a tailleur dressed
in black are the symbols of elegance and status that marked forever the history of fashion. But it was Chanel No. 5 - considered
the number-one selling perfume in the world - which helped her become a millionaire. The perfume was created in 1921 by Ernest
Beaux at the request of Chanel, who said about the perfume that it was "a woman's perfume with the scent of woman."
Its Art Deco bottle was incorporated into the permanent collection at the Museum of Modern Art in New York in 1959. Chanel
No. 5 was the first synthetic perfume to take the name of a designer. One of Coco Chanel's most famous quotes is, "This
perfume is not just beautiful and fragrant. It contains my blood and sweat and a million broken dreams."
Flying In the face of continuity,
logic, and erudite sociological predictions, fashion in the 1950s, far from being revolutionary and progressive, bore strong
nostalgic echoes of the past. A whole society which, in the 1920s and 1930s, had greatly bealieved in progress, was now much
more circumspect. As fashion looked to the past, haute couture experienced something of a revival and spawned a myriad of
star designers who profited hugely from the rapid growth of the media. Long, elegant skirts and cinched waists dominated
women's fashion once more.Throughout the 1950s,
although it would be for the last time, women around the world always continued to submit to the trends of Parisian haute
couture. Three of the most prominent of the Parisian couturiers of the time were Cristobal Balenciaga, Hubert de Givenchy,
and Pierre Balmain. The frugal prince of luxury, Cristobal Balanciaga Esagri made his fashion debut in the late thirties.
However, it was not until the post-war years that the full scale of the inventiveness of this highly original designer became
evident. In 1951, he totally transformed the silhouette, broadening the shoulders and removing the waist. In 1955, he designed
the tunic dress, which later developed into the chemise dress of 1957. And eventually, in 1959, his work culminated in the
Empire line, with high-waisted dresses and coats cut like kimonos. His mastery of fabric design and creation defied belief.
Balanciaga is also notable as one of the few couturiers in fashion history who could use their own hands to design, cut,
and sew the models which symbolized the height of his artistry.
After the war, the American look
(which consisted of broad shoulders, floral ties, straight-legged pants, and shirts with long pointed collars, often worn
hanging out rather than tucked in) became very popular among men in Europe. Certain London manufacturers ushered in a revival
of Edwardian elegance in men's fashion, adopting a tight-fitting retro style that was intended to appeal to traditionalists.
This look, originally aimed at the respectable young man about town, was translated into popular fashion as the Teddy boy
style. The Italian look, popularized by Caraceni, Brioni, and Cifonelli, was taken up by an entire generation of elegant young
lovers, on both sides of the Atlantic. The designers of Hollywood created a particular type of glamour for the stars of American
film, and outfits worn by the likes of Marilyn Monroe, Lauren Bacall, or Grace Kelly were widely copied. Quantitatively speaking,
a costume worn by an actress in a Hollywood movie would have a much bigger audience than the photograph of a dress designed
by a couturier illustrated in a magazine read by no more than a few thousand people. Without even trying to keep track of
all the Paris styles, its costume designers focused on their own version of classicism, which was meant to be timeless, flattering,
and photogenic. Using apparently luxurious materials, such as sequins, chiffon, and fur, the clothes were very simply cut,
often including some memorable detail, such as a low-cut back to a dress which was only revealed when the actress turned her
back from the camera or some particularly stunning accessory. The most influential and respected designers of Hollywood from
the 1930s to the 1950s were Edith Head, Orry-Kelly, William Travilla, Jean Louis, Travis Banton, and Gilbert Adrian.
In the 1950s
knee length skirts, with stockings were popular amongst young women. Summer dresses in floral fabrics with fitted tops and
full skirts were a hit too. To make the full skirts stick out wide petticoats with nylon net, wiring or rope was used. Easy
wear nylon was used in some dresses.
SA (more commonly known as Dior) is a French clothing retailer, under control of the LVMH group. The company was founded by
fashion designer Christian Dior. Christian Dior SA itself controls 42% of LVMH assets, which holds other fashion brands such
as Kenzo, Givenchy and Louis Vuitton. The holding company's operating unit, Christian Dior Couture, designs and makes
some of the world's most coveted haute couture, as well as luxury ready-to-wear fashion, menswear and accessories. Christian
Dior operates about 160 boutiques worldwide with plans to open more in the coming years. Its headquarters are located in Paris,
rue François 1er. In 1998 it purchased Gerbe Paris, a French hosiery maker that had gone bankrupt. It is a major part
of the business empire of Bernard Arnault, who is one of the richest people in the world.
The New Look
was the symbol of the new life style and the hopes of the people. In Dior`s 1948 collection.”Envol”, typical features
were that, skirts were scooped up at the back, worn with jackets that were cut with loose, fly-away backs and stand-up collars.
In 1950s skirts became shorter. The jackets were large and box-shaped, they sometimes had Horseshoe collars. During the following
seven years Dior introduced his version of the “Coolie Hat”, and his Princess Line. His three piece suit of 1952
cardigan-jacket, simple top worn outside, and soft skirt made from crepe in pastel shades-influenced fashion for many years.
Many of his collections featured three-quarter-length sleeves and stoles which remained popular throughout the 1950s.
In the 1950s, the rocker jacket achieved iconic status
in major part through fictional film. Examples include Marlon Brando's Johnny Strabler character in The Wild One (1953),
Michael Pare in Eddie and the Cruisers (1983), as well as the actor James Dean (although he never actually wore one in any
of his films). Later examples include Henry Winkler's character Fonzie in the 1970s American television series Happy Days,
which depicted life in the 1950s and early-mid 1960s, and the T-Birds characters in the Grease film duo. The Fonz's rocker
jacket is housed in the Smithsonian Institution. Danny Zuko and the rest of the T-Birds from the 1978 movie Grease would have
their gang name painted on the back of their rocker jackets. Other examples of the rocker jacket in popular culture include
the Black Panthers in the 1960s and 1970s, the punk rock band the Ramones, punk rocker Sid Vicious as well as part of the
Punk fashion, In the Mad Max Trilogy, Max and police officers sported jackets with armour, in the 1990s, Tre Cool sometimes
sported a leather jacket, the T-800 cyborg character of The Terminator movies; the character Roger Davis, played by Adam Pascal
in the 2005 movie Rent; and former World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) Wrestler Bret Hart. In the 1980s, rocker Joan Jett
commonly wore leather jackets.
After World War II, there
were some major fashion changes. The 1940's silhouette had wide shoulders and a short skirt, but the 1950's styles
were hourglass in shape (fitted body with small shoulder, small waistline, full skirt (or thin skirt)and higher heels). At
the end of the decade, a newer fashion look was becoming popular, later made popular by Jackie Kennedy, skirts were full (circle,
gathered, pleated or gored), but some were narrow and straight. Swing Skirts that were knee high were also populer, along
with the poodle skirt. In the early 50's the hemline was very long--usuallly mid-calf. Later the hems would rise to just
below the knee. Some women wore petticoats to make the skirts very full, others wore their skirts without petticoats. Wide
belts help to make the waistline look even smaller. The poodle skirt and the pencil skirt were the most popular. shirt dresses
were popular. These had a shirt-like bodice, with a gathered skirt. A narrow belt was worn. Other dresses had fitted bodices
with straight or narrow skirts. Solid fabric, plaids, prints and stripes were all popular. Colors were bright. Princess-line
dresses were also popular (having seamlines from shoulder to hem for a smooth fit). Often these had empire or raised waistlines.
Shorter jackets were worn with the empire dresses. Legs became narrow during the 50's. Pants were very popular and worn
at home and leisure. The Capri was mid-calf length, peddle pusher was a long short, and Bermuda shorts were knee length. These
were worn with flat shoes, ballet-type flats, and simple Keds. Socks were optional. Menswear: suits were becoming more narrow--with
narrow pants, and a Sack coat shape (Brooks Brother's suit). Charcoal grey was popular. A white shirt was usually worn
with this grey suit, along with a plain, narrow tie. Hats were loosing popularity as the car made it difficult to wear when
driving. Khaki pants and plaid shirts or button-down collared oxford cloth shirts were seen on students. Jeans were for outdoors
or teen wear. "T" shirts were seldom worn alone, being an undershirt. Bermuda shorts, Hawaiian shirts and box shirts
were worn in the summer. Hair was worn short, in a post-military style.
Fashion designers have to be aware of the fashion market
requirements. They have to be very interested in learning new things and read magazines, journals and
books on fashion design history and new trends. They also have to be interested in art, visit art galleries
and interact with all kinds of artists whenever they have the opportunity. A designer should also have
some knowledge and experience of tailoring (cutting, draping, sewing etc.) and be able to tell the
difference between different fabric quality levels. A good understanding of the audience's lifestyle and customer needs and requirements is
also needed in fashion design. Designers should have good communication skills and be able to express
their ideas clearly. But most important, they have to be very original and have fresh Psychology Articles,
Fashion design is a form of art
dedicated to the creation of clothing and other lifestyle accessories. Modern fashion design is divided into two basic categories:
haute couture and ready-to-wear. The haute couture collection is dedicated to certain customers and is custom sized to fit
these customers exactly. In order to qualify as a haute couture house, a designer has to be part of the Syndical Chamber for
Haute Couture and show a new collection twice a year presenting a minimum of 35 different outfits each time.
Ready-to-wear collections are standard sized, not custom made,
so they are more suitable for large production runs. They are also split into two categories: designer/createur and confection
collections. Designer collections have a higher quality and finish as well as an unique design. They often represent a certain
philosophy and are created to make a statement rather than for sale. Both ready-to-wear and haute-couture collections are
presented on international catwalks. The
first fashion designer who was more than a simple seamster was Charles Frederick Worth, in the 19th century. Before he set
up his fashion design house in Paris, clothing was made by anonymous dressmakers and fashion standards were derived from the
styles worn by royalty. Worth was the first designer to actually dictate to his customers what to wear rather than following
became so famous that
people were able to attach a face and a name to designs when they knew they were from the House of Worth. This was the beginning
of the tradition to have a designer of a house not only create clothing, but also represent the symbol of the brand. Fashion design is a form of art. To work as a designer,
you should have an artistic and creative personality. You also have to be good at drawing and able to express your ideas in
sketches. You don't necessarily have to be a great artist, but you must have some special skills for combining colors,
tones and shades. You also have to be able to work with fabric and use textiles in a creative and original manner. Fashion
designers have a good visual imagination and are able to think in three-dimensions and put their ideas into garments.
Platform high heel shoes are shoes with thick soles
often made of cork, plastic, rubber or wood. What differentiates platform high heel shoes from other high heel shoes is that
they have both thick soles and high heels. Platform heels are therefore considered more comfortable than the traditional high
heel shoes, as your feet are not at such a vast angle when standing in them.
By current fashion trends, very high
platform heels are associated with the adult entertainment industry. Professional strippers, pole and lap dancers are often
seen in high heel platform heels during their performances. Medium heel platform heel shoes are popular amongst teenagers
and women in their twenties in the US and the UK.
Platform heels are first said to have been used in ancient Greece
to increase the height of important characters in the Greek theatre. These were also used by prostitutes and courtesans in
Venice in the 16th century. Though platform heels gained some popularity in the US, the UK and European countries between
1930s and early 1950s, their popularity rose significantly in 1970s and 1980s. Rock musicians frequently wore platform shoes
during their performances. Catching onto the trend, young boys and girls wore them to get attention. In the late 1990s, the
UK’s sensational band – Spice Girls - brought platform high heel shoes back into mainstream fashion as they frequently
performed in large shoes. sexy platform high heels are available in almost every colour imaginable and in a host of exquisite
designs. At reputed online shoe shops you can find platform high heel shoes that suit a variety of tastes, moods, attitudes
and occasions. Browse through online catalogues and you will find platform heels adorning the soles of almost all types of
shoes ranging from sandals, sling backs, pumps, Mary Jane pumps, knee-length and thigh high boots, peep toe and closed toe
shoes, thongs and more. The heel heights of the shoes usually vary from mid-heel to skyscrapers.
Colors of platform
high heel shoes vary from a sober to funky. Commonly noticed colors include black patent, white patent, red patent, silver,
blue, pink, brown, blue, yellow etc. Platform high heels in multicolor and twin-colors are also popular. Platform high heel
shoes with clear heels, wooden soles (called clogs), and hidden heels are also quite popular these days. Advantages of
platforms high heels
Platform high heels shoes are of an ultimate advantage for women who love to wear heels but
find it hard to balance in thin soled, pointy stilettos. Platform heels offer them all the advantages of high heels but with
the comfort of flats. Platform heels with hidden heels are also of advantage for women who are shorter but want to look taller.
Platform heel shoes are available in a range of trendy designs and colors that especially suit the fun-loving teenagers
and girls in their twenties. Platform shoes with very high heels render an ultimate sex appeal and are the preferred shoes
of women in adult entertainment industry. Disadvantages of platform high heels
When women wear platform high
heel shoes, they are at the very real risk of falling. Even super model Naomi Campbell had to bear this disadvantage during
a fashion show once.
Doctors warn against platform heels as they carry the risk of the development of flatfoot,
because the ligaments and muscles remain idle while walking in platform shoes. Platform shoes are also not considered suitable
for women drivers. This is because you cannot feel the effect of pressure on a pedal while you are wearing platform shoes. Which is better – a platform high heel or other high heels?
Both platform high heel shoes and other high
heels carry certain advantages and disadvantages. While high heel stilettos are currently a rage in mainstream fashion, platform
high heel shoes continue to be a favorite of teenagers and young women who like to flaunt their fun loving attitude.
You can find a myriad variety of both platform high heels and various other types of high heel shoes at a trendy online
shoe shop. You can buy high heel shoes, whether they are stilettos or platform high heel shoes,platform high heel shoes depending
on your choice, attitude and the dress you want to wear it with. Designer platform shoes can easily be teemed with a designer
pantsuit or classic shirtdress and look equally good on both tall and short statured women.
All fashion conscious
young women in the UK and the US will invariably possess a pair of sexy high heel platform shoes. Platform high heel shoes
add to the height of the women and make them look taller. Teenagers and women in their 20ies especially go for platform shoes
as these are much friendlier and convenient to walk in compared to other high heel shoes.
Teen girls were as conservative and preppy as their parents. They wore
dresses everyday, for pants and shorts were simply unheard of. They wore Petticoats over big gathered shirts. Circle
pins. Cardigan sweaters worn backwards with the buttons down the back with a string of pearls or scarf. And don't
you forget the peddle pushers.
Fashion is a
way of life; an attitude that transcends through your ensemble displaying your own originality. It allows people to express
their feelings and make statements through their clothes and accessories. For instance, wearing a sexy outfit may illicit
an individual to feel more sexy and playful. The classicism and elegance of fashion is evolving, allowing it to take on a
touch of originality, fantasy, and sensuality not only in the fabrics, but in designs and styles. This Contemporary and relaxed
attitude creates a look by associating colors and designs which can transform jeans, shirts, purses or even dresses in a unique
and glamorous collaboration. Imagery is a new concept used by fashion designers to enhance these creative possibilities.
Hubert de Givenchy opened his first
couture house in 1952 and created a sensation with his separates, which could be mixed and matched at will. Most renowned
was his Bettina blouse made from shirting, which was named after his top model. Soon, boutiques were opened in Rome, Zurich,
and Buenos Aires. A man of immense taste and discrimination, he was, perhaps more than any other designer of the period, an
integral part of the world whose understated elegance he helped to define. Pierre Balmain opened his own salon in 1945. It was in a series of collections named 'Jolie Madame'
that he experienced his greatest success, from 1952 onwards. Balmain's vision of the elegantly-dressed woman was particularly
Parisian and was typified by the tailored glamour of the New Look, with its ample bust, narrow waist, and full skirts, by
mastery of cut and imaginative assemblies of fabrics in subtle color combinations. His sophisticated clientèle was
equally at home with luxurious elegance, simple tailoring, and a more natural look. Along with his haute couture work, the
talented businessman pioneered a ready-to-wear range called Florilege and also launched a number of highly successful perfumes.
By the end of the decade mass-manufactured,
off-the-peg clothing had become much more popular than in the past, granting the general public unprecedented access to fashionable
styles. In the 1960s, pop culture was more focused
on teenagers and their interests, including rock n roll. Youth fashions influenced the fashion industry. In the UK, the Teddy
boy became both a style icon and an anti-authoritarian figures, whilst in North America, greasers had a similar social position.
Previously, teenagers dressed similarly to their parents, but now a rebellious and different youth style was being developed.
Rock and Roll gave people the freedom to dress with more individuality. This was particularly noticeable in the overtly sexual
nature of their dress. Some young men wore tight trousers, leather jackets, and tee shirts; these men often grew their hair
out and, with pomade or other hair treatments, coiffed their hair into pompadours. Men's hair fashion favored the wet
look, achieved by the use of products such as Brylcreem.
The 50s were
deadly dull because the adults that had fought World War II had had more than enough excitement and were content to make babies
and homes with white furniture and started the business of consumer durables. The children of the 50s couldn't wait to
grow up and reject the false prophet of materialism and it was those children of the 50s who created the swinging 60s the
minute they could pull on their sexy jeans and mini-skirts and gave space to sex, drugs and rock n' roll.
A little black dress is an evening or
cocktail dress, cut simply and often with a short skirt, originally made popular in the 1920s by the fashion designer Coco
Chanel. Intended by Chanel to be long-lasting, versatile, affordable, accessible to the widest market possible and in a neutral
color. Its continued ubiquity is such that many refer to it by its abbreviation, LBD. The "little black dress" is considered essential to a complete wardrobe by many women and
fashion observers, who believe it a "rule of fashion" that every woman should own a simple, elegant black dress
that can be dressed up or down depending on the occasion: for example, worn with a jacket and pumps for daytime business wear
or with more ornate jewelry and accessories for evening. Because it is meant to be a staple of the wardrobe for a number of
years, the style of the little black dress ideally should be as simple as possible: a short black dress that is too clearly
part of a trend would not qualify because it would soon appear dated.
A Crew cut is
a type of haircut in which the hair on the top of the head is cut relatively short, graduated in length from the longest hair
at the front hairline to the shortest at the back of the crown. The hair on the sides and back of the head is usually tapered
short, semi-short or medium. A very short crew cut is sometimes referred to as as a butch cut (maintained with butch wax)
or buzz cut. A long crew cut is referred to as an ivy league.
A buzz cut
(sometimes known as a wiffle or crew cut) is the American name for a type of haircut named after the sound of the electric
razor, which is used to shear the hair very closely to the scalp. In the United Kingdom, the haircut is called a skinhead
(although the skinhead hairstyle was originally called a skiffle). In the Philippines it's called semi, for semi-kalbo
(bald), among Tagalogs or skinhead among Visayans. In Singapore it is often called a "GI (number)", with the number
representing the seven different grades. In Australia the haircut is usually called a "crewcut".
It is one of the most rapid haircuts possible, and can take little
more than a minute to cut when done with good quality clippers. Buzz cuts come in seven grades: #0 or bareblade (shortest),
#1 (3 mm), #2 (6 mm), #3 (9 mm), #4 (12 mm), #5 (15 mm) and #6 (19 mm). These numbers correspond to eighths of an inch.
The British Teddy boy subculture is
typified by young men wearing clothes inspired by the styles of the Edwardian period, which Savile Row tailors had tried to
re-introduce after World War II. The group got its name after a 1953 newspaper headline shortened Edward to Teddy and coined
the term Teddy boy (also known as Ted). The subculture started in London in the 1950s and rapidly spread across the UK, soon
becoming strongly associated with American rock and roll music of the period. The Teddy Boys were the first youth group in
England to differentiate themselves as teenagers, thus helping to create a youth market. Some groups of Teds formed gangs and gained notoriety following violent clashes with rival gangs,
which were often exaggerated by the popular press. The most notable was the Notting Hill riot of 1958, in which Teddy Boys
were conspicuous within racist white mobs who roamed the area attacking black people and damaging their property. In the 1960s,
many Teddy Boys became rockers.
Teddy girls adopted
a style similar to Teddy Boys; they wore items such as drape jackets, hobble skirts, long plaits, straw boater hats, cameo
brooches, espadrilles and coolie hats. Later they adopted the American fashions of toreador pants, voluminous circle skirts,
and hair in ponytails.
shoes were a conspicuous contrast to the Creepers worn by Teddy Boys. The male shoes were lace-up Oxford style with a low
heel and an exaggerated pointed toe. A Chelsea Boot style (elastic-sided with a two-inch, and later as much as two and one
half inch, Cuban heel was notably worn by the Beatles, but although it had a pointed toe, was not considered to be a Winklepicker.
Winklepicker shoes from Stan's of Battersea were also worn by the Teddy Girls as well as being a fleeting fashion for
young women generally.
made it acceptable for young people to care about what one looked like all the time and dress purely for show, instead of
just having one's work or school clothes or Sunday best. This trend arose as young people's disposable income increased
during the post-war years. Teddy Boy clothing consisted of: long drape jackets, usually in dark shades, sometimes with velvet
trim collar and pocket flaps; high-waisted "drainpipe" trousers, often showing brightly coloured socks. Favoured
footwear were chunky brogues, large crepe-soled shoes, often suede (known as brothel creepers). Plus a high-necked loose collar
on a white shirt (known as a Mr. B. collar because it was often worn by jazz musician Billy Eckstine); a narrow 'Slim
Jim' tie, and a brocade waistcoat. These clothes were mostly tailor-made at great expense and paid for through many weekly
instalments. Preferred hairstyles included long, strongly-moulded greased-up hair with a quiff at the front and the side hair
combed back to form a Duck's Ass at the rear of the head. Another hairstyle was the Boston, in which the hair was greased
straight back and cut square across at the nape.
During the 1970s, rockabilly music
enjoyed a renewed period of popularity and saw a resurgence of interest in Teddy Boy fashions; the look was plagiarised by
Vivienne Westwood and Malcolm McLaren through their shop Let it Rock on London's Kings Road. This new generation of Teds
adopted some aspects of the 1950s Teds, but with a large amount of glam rock influence, including louder colours for their
drape jackets, brothel creepers and socks. Additionally, rather than using grease to style their hair, they were more likely
to use hairspray. In the latter part of the 1970s, the new generation of Teds became the arch-enemies of the Westwood and
McLaren-inspired punk rockers.
The early 1990s saw a revival of the original Teddy Boy style by a group of
men known as The Edwardian Drape Society (T.E.D.S). Based in the Tottenham area of north London, they were concerned with
reclaiming the original style that they felt had become bastardised by pop/glam bands such as Showaddywaddy and Mud in the
1970s. They have been the subject of a short film, The Teddy Boys, by Bruce Weber, which premiered at the Cambridge Film Festival
in July 2006. The band was formed in 1973 by the amalgamation of two groups, Choise and The Golden Hammers. This led
to an eight member band, with the unusual feature of having two vocalists, a couple of drummers and two bassists. Their first
single, "Hey Rock and Roll" (written by the band), was released in April 1974. It reached number two in the UK Singles
Chart. Showaddywaddy then went on to have a further 22 UK hits from this point until late 1982. They had most of their biggest
hits with covers of songs from the 1950s and 1960s. These cover versions included "Three Steps to Heaven" (originally
by Eddie Cochran in 1960), "Heartbeat" (originally written and recorded by Buddy Holly), "Under the Moon of
Love" (originally a U.S. hit for Curtis Lee in 1961 and co-written by Tommy Boyce), "When" (originally by the
Kalin Twins), "You Got What It Takes" (originally by Marv Johnson) and "Dancin' Party" (originally
by Chubby Checker). The above six singles were all produced by Mike Hurst (a former member of The Springfields, who had also
previously produced Cat Stevens). Following "Dancin' Party" the band produced themselves with more cover versions including "I
Wonder Why" (originally by Dion and the Belmonts), "Blue Moon" (based on The Marcels' interpretation) and
another Curtis Lee original "Pretty Little Angel Eyes", again co-written by Tommy Boyce. Their most recent chart
single was "Who Put the Bomp (In the Bomp-A-Bomp-A-Bomp)", a minor number 37 hit in 1982.
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